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和田玉标准体系建立的目的与意义

2018-01-24 08:43大众收藏网 编辑:admin人气:


 来源: 刘姣  新疆质检院和田玉检验中心

  WOGUOHETIANYUSHICHANGZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIXINJIANG、BEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGDONG、HENAN、JIANGSU、ZHEJIANGJIANHUIDENGDIQU,QIZHONGXINJIANGSHIHETIANYUZUIDADEPIFAYULINGSHOUSHICHANGZHIYI,BINGQIEXINJIANGYUQISHICHANGSHANGXIAOSHOUDEBAOYUSHILEICHANPIN,HETIANYUDEBILIZHANDAO80%YISHANG。JUBUWANQUANTONGJI,JINXINJIANGHETIANYUXIAOSHOUMEINIANJIAOYIEZHISHAOZAIBAIYIYUANYISHANG。ERHETIANYUDECHANDIGUONEIZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIXINJIANG、QINGHAIHELIAONINGDENGDI,GUOWAIYIELUOSI、JIANADA、HANGUODENGWEIZHU,GUONEIYIXINJIANGHETIANDIQUZHONGLEIZUIDUO,HETIANYUCHANYEDEXUNSUFAZHANDUIQUANGUOTEBIESHIXINJIANGJINGJIDEFAZHANQIDAOJIJIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。TONGSHI,HETIANYUCHANYEDEXUNSUFAZHANXUYAODUIYINGDEBIAOZHUNTIXILAIBAOZHENGQISHICHANGJIANKANGYOUXUGUIFANDIFAZHAN。

图1 新疆乌鲁木齐-华凌国际珠宝玉器城图1 新疆乌鲁木齐-华凌国际珠宝玉器城

资产配资公司   HETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXISHIZHIWEIRAOHETIANYUGEXINGYEZHIDINGDEYISHICHANG、MAOYIHEGUOJIAGUIFANWEIJICHU,ZHENGTITUIJINXINGYE、CHANYE、DIFANG、QIYEYOUXUDI、LIANGXINGDIFAZHANDEZHENGCEHEFAGUI,ZHIJIEHUOJIANJIESHEJIYUANCAILIAODEKAICAI、JIAGONGDIAOKE、XIAOSHOU、JIANCEHEJIAZHIPINGGUYIJIZICHANLIUTONGDEQUANGUOCHENGDEKECHIXUYUNXINGDEGUIZEWANGLUO。YINGSHICHANGSUOXU,JINNIANLAIHETIANYUBIAOZHUNHUAGONGZUODEDAOLEJINYIBUDEJIAQIANG,BIZHESUOZAIDANWEIZAIHETIANYUBIAOZHUNDEZHIXIUDINGFANGMIANJINXINGLEDALIANGDEYANJIU,JIANLILEXIANGDUIWANSHANDEHETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXI。2004NIANZHIDINGLEDB65/T 2131-2004《HETIANYUQIGONGYIZHILIANG》,2010NIANXIUDINGLEDB65/T 035《HETIANYU》(WENZIBIAOZHUN),2012NIANCANYUZHIDINGLEDIFANGBIAOZHUN《MANASIBIYU》,2013NIANDIYANZHIBINGJINGGUOBIAOWEIFABUGSB16-3061-2013《HETIANYUSHIWUBIAOZHUNYANGPIN》(SHIWUBIAOZHUN),2017NIANZHENGZAIYANZHIGUOJIABIAOZHUN《HETIANYUDEJIANDINGYUFENLEI》。ZAIHOUQIDEGONGZUOZHONG,JIHUAZHIDING《HETIANYUJIAGONGGONGYIBIAOZHUN》、《HETIANYUGONGYIPINGJIABIAOZHUN》DENG,ZHUBUJIANLIJIANQUANCONGHETIANYUJIANCEBIAOZHUNDAOFENLEIBIAOZHUNZAIDAOFENJIBIAOZHUN、PINGJIABIAOZHUN、GONGYIBIAOZHUN,CONGWENZIBIAOZHUNDAOSHIWUBIAOZHUNDEHETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXI。

  1、检测标准

  ZHUNQUEJIANCEYUJIANDINGYUCAIDEZHUYAOKUANGWU(YANSHI)CHENGFENBINGDUIQIJINXINGZHENGQUEDEMINGMING,SHIHETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXIJIANLIDEJICHUHEQIANTI。HETIANYUDEJIANCEYIJUGB/T 16553《ZHUBAOYUSHI JIANDING》,FENBIECONGFANGDAJIANCHA、GUANGZE、ZHESHELV、MIDU、YINGDU、GUANGXINGTEZHENG、HONGWAIGUANGPUFENXI、ZIWAIYINGGUANGDENGFANGMIANRUSHOU;DINGMINGZHUYAOYIJUGB/T 16552《ZHUBAOYUSHI MINGCHENG》HEDB65/T 035《HETIANYU》,MINGCHENGBAOKUOHETIANYU(YANGZHIYU)、HETIANYU(TANGYANGZHIYU)、HETIANYU(BAIYU)、HETIANYU(TANGBAIYU)、HETIANYU(QINGBAIYU)、HETIANYU(QINGYU)、HETIANYU(MOYU)、HETIANYU(TANGYU)、HETIANYU(BIYU)JIHETIANYUDENG。

  2、分类标准

资产配资公司   DANGYUCAIBEIQUEDINGWEIHETIANYUHOU,DUIQIZAIJINXINGZHONGLEIHUAFEN,MUQIANZHUYAODEFENLEIFANGSHIFENBIECONGYANSEHECHANZHUANGLIANGFANGMIANJINXING。

  2.1YANSEFENLEI

  YIJUGB/T 16552《ZHUBAOYUSHI MINGCHENG》,ANZHAOYANSECHAYIHETIANYUZHUYAOFENWEIBAIYU、QINGBAIYU、QINGYU、BIYU、TANGYUHEMOYU6GEPINZHONG,GSB16-3061-2013《HETIANYUSHIWUBIAOZHUNYANGPIN》SHIJIYUQIWENZIBIAOZHUNERDUIYINGDESHIWUBIAOZHUNYANGPIN,WEIYANSEFENLEITIGONGYIJUHECANZHAOWU;YIJUDB65/T 035《HETIANYU》,HETIANYUZHUYAOFENWEIYANGZHIBAIYU、BAIYU、QINGBAIYU、QINGYU、BIYU、TANGYU、HUANGYUJIMOYU8DALEI,WEIFUHEDANGDISHICHANGFAZHAN,BIZHESUOZAIDANWEIJIANGGB/T 16552《ZHUBAOYUSHI MINGCHENG》HEDB65/T 035《HETIANYU》LIANGGEBIAOZHUNJIEHESHIYONG。

资产配资公司   HETIANYUYANSEFENLEIDEPINGJIAFANGFAZHUYAOYOULIANGZHONGXINGSHI:YIZHONGSHIKEGUANPINGJIAFANGFA,JITONGGUOYIQICELIANGQUDEHETIANYUYOUGUANDEWUHUAZHIBIAOJIPUXUETEZHENGDENG,CONGERDADAOPINGJIAMUDE;LINGYIZHONGSHIZHUGUANPINGJIAFANGFA,JIZHIJIETONGGUORENDEGANJUEQIGUANJIANYANCHANPINDEGANGUANTEXINGDEFANGFA,TAYIJINGQUEDESHUZHIHUOMIAOSHUXINGDEYUYANCIHUIDENGXINGSHIBIAODARENDEZHUGUANGANJUE,BEIGUANGFANDIYINGYONGYUSHIPIN(RUJIU、CHAYEDENG)、FANGZHIPIN、HUAGONGHEZHIYAODENGZHONGDUOLINGYU,ZHEIYESHIYIZHONGKEXUEDEQIEYINGYONGJIAOJIUDEPINGJIAFANGFA,ZHISHIZAISHIJISHIYONGSHIYINGXIANGYINSUJIAODUO、JIAONANZHANGKONGERYI。

图2 和田玉实物标准样品——颜色分类标准图2 和田玉实物标准样品——颜色分类标准

  2.2CHANZHUANGFENLEI

  ANZHAOCHANZHUANGDEBUTONG,YIJUDB65/T 035《HETIANYU》,HETIANYUKEFENWEISHANLIAO(YUANSHENGKUANG),SHANLIUSHUI(CISHENGKUANG),GEBILIAO(CISHENGKUANG),ZILIAO(CISHENGKUANG)。MUQIAN,RICHANGJIANCEGONGZUOZHONGHAIWEICAIYONGCIZHONGFENLEIFANGFA。

图3 新疆子料图3 新疆子料

  3、分级标准

  ZAIHETIANYUFENLEIDEJICHUSHANGJINXINGPINZHIPINGJIA,JIANLIFENJIBIAOZHUN,FENBIEZHENDUIYUBUTONGDELEIBIEJINXINGFENJI。BAIYU、BIYU、HUANGYUCONGYANSE、TOUMINGDU、ZHIDI(JIEGOU)、GUANGJIEDU(JINGDU)DENGFANGMIANJINXINGFENJIPINGJIA,BAIYUFENJIZHONGXUTONGSHIKAOLVZHIDI(JIEGOU)HEYANSESUOZHANQUANZHONG,BIYUFENJIHEHUANGYUFENJIZHONGYANSESUOZHANQUANZHONGZUIDA;TANGYU、MOYUCHUCONGSHANGSHUSIFANGMIANFENXIZHIWAI,HAIXUKAOLVTANGSEJIMOSEDEFENBUXINGTAI。ANZHAOYANSEFENLEIZHUBUJIANLIJIANQUAN《BAIYUFENJI》、《BIYUFENJI》、《HUANGYUFENJI》、《TANGYUFENJI》JI《MOYUFENJI》WUDAFENJIBIAOZHUN,BINGYANZHIYIYIDUIZHAODESHIWUBIAOZHUNYANGPIN。ZAIFENJIFANGMIANCHULECAIYONGGANGUANPINGJIADEFANGFAWAIHAIXUJIARUYIQICESHIJIEGUOZUOWEIJIELUNDEZHICHI。LIRUYANSEHETOUMINGDUKEYICHANGSHICAIYONGZIWAI-KEJIANGUANGGUANGPUYIZAITEDINGHUANJINGHEYANGPINTIAOJIANXIAJINXINGCESHI,ZHIDIKEYIJIEJIANZUANSHIDEJINGDUFENJIDEMIAOSHUJIGUANCHAFANGFAJINXINGFENJI。

  4、评价标准

  HETIANYUDEPINZHIPINGJIAYIBANZHUYAOFENWEISHANLIAOHEZILIAOLIANGGEFANGMIAN,ZAISHANLIAOFANGMIANZHUYAOCONGZHIDI、YANSE、TOUMINGDUZHEISANFANGMIANJINXINGPINGJIA,ZILIAOFANGMIANCHUZHIDI、YANSE、TOUMINGDUWAI,HAIXUKAOLVZHILIANG(ZHONGLIANGHUOKUAIDU)HEXINGZHUANGLIANGFANGMIANYINSU。

  BAIYUDEPINGJIABIAOZHUNKEYIJUXINJIANGHETIANYUSHICHANGXINXILIANMENGJIAOYIZHONGXINHUITONGHETIANYUSHICHANGXINXILIANMENGLUNZHIZHUXIDANWEIZHIDINGDE《XINJIANGHETIANYU(BAIYU)ZILIAOPINZHIDENGJIHUAFENBIAOZHUN》,DANGAIBIAOZHUNSHUYUXINJIANGHETIANYUSHICHANGXINXILIANMENGNEIBUSHIYONGCAILIAO。BIAOZHUNZHONGJICHULEBAIYUZILIAODEDINGYI、JIANDINGFANGFAYIJIPINGJIADEYAOSUSHIZAIZIRANGUANGHUOSHOUDIANGUANGXIAANZHIDIXINIDU、GUANGZEDU、BAIDU、PISE、XINGZHUANGDENGDUOFANGMIANTEZHENGJINXINGFENLEIDENGJIPINGJIADE。

图4 新疆和田玉市场信息联盟交易中心图4 新疆和田玉市场信息联盟交易中心

  5、工艺标准

资产配资公司   HETIANYUDEJIAGONGGONGYIBAOKUOXUANLIAO、SHEJI、ZHUOMO、PAOGUANGHEZHUANGHUANGWUGEFANGMIANNEIRONG。

  5.1XUANLIAO

资产配资公司   XUANLIAOSHIHETIANYUJIAGONGDEDIYIGEBUZHOU,YINGZIXIGUANCHAHECHAKANMEIYIKUAIHETIANYUYUANLIAO,LEJIEQIXINGZHUANGTEDIAN,ZHANGWOQIZHIDI、YANSEZHONGLEIJIFENBUHEBIAOPIDENGFANGMIANTEZHENG,BINGGENJUZHEIXIETEZHENGJINXINGQIAOMIAOGOUSIHELISHEJI。

  5.2SHEJI

  SHEJISHIHETIANYUSHIPINJIAGONGZHIZUOZHONGZUIGUANJIANDEHUANJIE,YINGJINXIANCHUHETIANYUDETIANRANMEI。HETIANYUSHIPINDESHEJIYUANZESHIBAOLIUYOUDIAN,QUDIAOHUOZHEMIBUYUANQUEDIAN,JI“YINCAISHIYI”、“WAZANGZHELIU”、“WULIUBUZUOHUA”。

  5.3ZHUOMO

  ZHUOMOSHIWEILEZHIZUOCHUYUSHIZAOXING,FENWEIZHUOHEMOLIANGDAOGONGXU。ZHUOJIQIEKAI、DIAOZHUO,JIANGZAOXINGZHONGDEYULIAOQIECHU,YOUZHA、BIAO、KOU、HUADENGJIZHONGBUTONGSHOUFA。MOJIYANMO,YESHIQUCHUYULIAO,YOUCHONGHEYAZHIFEN。JINGGUOZHUOMOHOU,JIBENZAOXINGYIJINGWANCHENG,CHENGWEI“CHUPI”。JIEXIALAIJIUSHIJINXINGXIJIECHULI,YOUGOU、CHE、YE、DIEWA、DINGZHUANG、SHUNPINGDENGGONGYI,SHIYUQIZUOPINXIANTIAOLIUCHANG,ZIRANBIZHEN。

  5.4PAOGUANG

  PAOGUANGSHIYUQIJIAGONGDEZUIHOUYIDAOGONGXU,XINGYENEICHENGWEI“GUANGLIANG”HUO“GUANGHUO”,BUZHOUWEIMOXI—ZHAOLIANG—QINGXI—GUOLAHECASHI。

  5.5ZHUANGHUANG

资产配资公司   WEILEMEIHUAHEBAOHUYUQI,CHANGJIANDEYOUZUOYUJINXIALIANGZHONG。

图5 和田玉雕件-玉壶图5 和田玉雕件-玉壶

  2015NIANXINJIANGZHIJIANYUANZUZHICHENGLILE“XINJIANGWEIWUERZIZHIQUZHUBAOYUSHIBIAOZHUNHUAJISHUWEIYUANHUI”,2016NIAN “GUOJIAHETIANYUCHANPINZHILIANGJIANDUJIANYANZHONGXIN(XINJIANG)”ZHENGSHIGUAPAI。CONGZHEILIANGGEFANGMIANYEKEYIKANCHU,HETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXIDEJIANLIYIJINGCHENGWEIQISUOYOUGONGZUODEZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。HETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXIBAOKUOJIANCEBIAOZHUN、FENLEIBIAOZHUN、FENJIBIAOZHUN、PINGJIABIAOZHUN、JIGONGYIBIAOZHUNWUGEFANGMIAN,JIANLIDEMUDEZAIYUGENGHAODIBAOHUJINGXIAOSHANGHEXIAOFEIZHEDEHEFAQUANYI,BAOHUHETIANYUDESHENGYU,TIGAOHETIANYUCHANPINZHILIANG,CUJINHETIANYUCHANYESHIXIANCHIXU、JIANKANG、GUIFANFAZHAN,JINYIBUTUIDONGHETIANYUCHANYEZAIGUONEISHICHANGDEFANRONGFAZHAN。ZAIZHE,HETIANYUBIAOZHUNTIXIDEJIANLIYOUZHUYUDUIHETIANYUJINXINGYOUXIAOJIANBIE,JIHETIANYUDEJIAZHIPINGGUTIGONGYIJU,YOUZHUYUHETIANYUSHICHANGDAIDONGQUANGUOYUQISHICHANGDEFANRONGFAZHAN。

(来源:未知)

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